What is perovskite?
Perovskites are a group of materials with the same structure that have many interesting properties, such as superconductivity, magnetoresistance, and more. People think these materials are the future of solar panels because they are easy to make and have a special structure that makes them great for low-cost, efficient photovoltaics.
What is perovskite solar cells?
A solar cell with a perovskite-structured material is called a perovskite solar cell.
Perovskite is a material with the same crystal structure as the mineral perovskite solar cells, which was the first perovskite solar cells crystal to be found. Chalcocite compounds usually have the chemical formula ABX 3, where "A" and "B" are cations and "X" is the anion to which they are bound. Chalcocite structures can be made from a large number of different elements.
Scientists can make perovskite solar cell crystals with a wide range of physical, optical, and electrical qualities by changing the way this material is put together.
The efficiency of single-junction perovskite solar cells is breaking records every year
In 2009, they only got a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, and since 2016, the record for perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells has been higher than that of single-junction solar cells. This is a record for junction perovskite solar cells. Researchers at Oxford Photonics and the Helmholtz Centre in Berlin have broken records for how efficiently they convert power since 2018. The Helmholtz Centre in Berlin was most efficient in 2021, when it got to 29.8%.
Perovskite solar cells VS Crystalline silicon solar cells
1. Higher efficiency: This is one of the best things about the technology. So far, an efficiency of 29.15% has been measured, which is close to 30% and 3.75 percentage points better than the best efficiency measured for crystalline silicon Al-BSF technology. This shows how much promise chalcogenide solar panels have.
2. Less attenuation: Crystalline silicon solar panels have a temperature value of about -0.38%/°C, while Perovskite solar cells only have -0.13%/°C. This makes the decay stage last longer.
3. Easier to produce: Perovskite solar cells can be made entirely in solution. This means that large-scale methods like slot-die finishing and ink jet printing can be used to make them. This could mean that they are easy to change so that they can be made in large numbers.
Disadvantages of perovskite solar cells
1. Cost: Most of the time, gold is the most popular material used to make the electrodes. Another issue is that perovskite solar cells that are less expensive don't last as long. Perovskite PVs also break down quickly when they come into contact with water, and the chemicals that come out of this process attack metal electrodes. Heavy coatings can also raise the cost of the cell because they protect the perovskite.
2. Poisonous: One of the things that perovskite breaks down into is a poisonous material called PbI, which might even cause cancer. Also, lead is used in a lot of perovskite cells, which is a very dirty material.
3. Length of life: Crystalline silicon solar cell technology has been around for a long time and can last up to 30 years. Chalcogenide solar panels, on the other hand, only last 30 months in the best case situation, which makes them useless for most practical uses.
Putting perovskite solar cells on the market
Commercialization of perovskite solar cells
Even though they have never been used on a big scale, calcium-titanium-mineral batteries have been in the spotlight on the way to being sold to the public. With the top-tier relationship between Oxford PV and Meyerberger and the landing of GCL Nano's 100MW production line, photovoltaic products made with perovskite solar cells are already on the market.
The State Power Investment Corporation (SIPC), Huaneng Group, LONGi, Trina Solar, Zhonglai Photovoltaic, Aixu Science and Technology, Savi Group, Shengcheng Photovoltaic, and other companies have said that they are paying close attention to the trend of silicon-based chalcocite stacked battery technology and making plans to launch it.
The price of a perovskite solar cell module is projected to drop to less than €0.1 per watt when its production capacity reaches 1 GW. At that time, economic perovskite solar cells on top of HJT, TOPCon, CIGS, and other technologies will drive the photovoltaic industry, a new round of technological upgrading, product iteration, and application innovation, and strongly promote PV parity Internet access and clean energy substitution.
At the moment, the commercialization process of perovskite solar cells photovoltaic technology is about to start, and it is a positive and important milestone to talk about the technology and industrialization of perovskite solar cells and stacked solar cells (modules) and to take practical steps to crack the major propositions to help the industry grow.
Manser, Joseph S.; Christians, Jeffrey A.; Kamat, Prashant V. (2016). "Intriguing Optoelectronic Properties of Metal Halide Perovskites". Chemical Reviews. 116 (21): 12956–13008. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00136. PMID 27327168
Mag, S. (2022) “Perovskite Solar Cells: An In-Depth Guide + Comparisons with other techs,” Solar Magazine .
What are Perovskite Solar Cells? (no date)