How Solar Panels Are Made?

· About Solar Panels

Solar panels convert light into electricity, thereby converting energy everywhere. Making solar panels, on the other hand, necessitates complex material structures and manufacturing processes. Read on to learn more about each!

how polysilicon become solar module

Solar panel materials and construction

Glass, aluminium frames, EVA, and other auxiliary materials used in PV module packaging provide protection for the cells. Maysun has been subjected to rigors material selection, precise processing and manufacturing, and stringent performance testing. This ensures that we can use high-quality PV modules in a variety of climate environments, providing performance and durability guarantees.

With its internal structure, how does a solar panel withstand rain and snow? From top to bottom, the typical structure consists of PV glass, EVA, cells, EVA, backplane/PV glass, and an aluminium alloy frame and junction box. However, making a high-quality solar panel necessitates more than just assembling these components. It must go through a series of rigors processes and pass numerous tests.

In short, a team of specialists and 20-25 machines collaborate closely from cell to module. To create a complete solar panel, there are ten major steps that are divided into several sub-steps.

The manufacturing process of solar panels​

The manufacturing of solar panels​

Step 1: Cut in half

Using a laser cutter to divide the cells in half and switching to small area cells in series is an effective way to reduce current losses and increase module power. The module, on the other hand, multiplies the number of connection points and places high demands on the manufacturing process. We will test the cut cells, and only those that pass will move on to the next step.

Step 2:Welding

How are the individual cells linked together to form a circuit? Solder tape connects the positive and negative poles of adjacent cells at high temperatures. The tape quickly melts and cools, forming a strong and permanent physical connection between the cells. This connection creates a chain of cells. Before proceeding to the next step, we manually inspect it.


Step 3:Layout

How do PV module manufacturers construct the internal structure? First, arrange the cell strings on the EVA-covered PV glass. To complete the preliminary circuit, solder the deflector strips to the solder strips on both sides of the cell strings. Furthermore, the dispensing machine quickly corrects the circuit layout.

Keep a fixed distance of 2-5 mm between the horizontal and vertical directions of each cell in the assembly when attaching it above and below the cell surface to ensure the solder strip's reliability. We can project some of the irradiated light in the slits of the cells onto the surface of the battery again by implementing a reasonable design. This is accomplished by reflecting the light twice with the help of the back plate and glass. As a result, the PV panel's output power can be increased.

The arrangement of the cell determines the efficiency of PV conversion, and determining how to lay the backplane improves current export. After dispensing, arrange the EVA and backing plate on the cell. Pass the deflector strip lead through the backing plate holes, allowing current to flow out of the cell along the lead.


Step 4: EL testing

The final step before lamination is to perform EL testing, in which the operator scans the module in the EL machine. We can easily identify dead or low-power cells, short-circuit cells, cracks, and so on. If you find such an error, send the module back to be fixed.

EL testing

Step 5:Lamination

High temperatures tightly bond the glass, EVA, cells, and backsheet together to form the module's body during lamination. As a result, we must make a final adjustment and test the laminated components to ensure their reliability.

Modules that pass the EI test are fed into the laminator for final shaping. Allow the modules to cool for 10-15 minutes after laminating, until they reach room temperature.


Step 6:Frame

To make the assembly process more precise, we must cut the excess material around the edges of the modules to make them uniform in shape and size. Following that, the staff will inspect the condition of the cells. Once everything is in place, use a sealant to secure the cut aluminium frame to the module. The panel is completely sealed, preventing air, dust, and moisture from entering the module.


Step 7: Install the junction box

The junction box is attached to the back plate's deflector strips. To ensure that current flows smoothly, we attach the junction box to the module using sealant and soldering processes.

Step 8: Solidify and Clean

Allow the module to solidify for 10-12 hours after soldering to allow the structure to completely dry and reach a stable state. To present the assembly in its best condition after the solidification process, you must manually clean the module to remove dust, foreign objects, or spilt sealant.

Step 9: Module Testing

Once the modules have been manufactured, they will be subjected to the final three tests to ensure the quality of the finished product. We calibrate the cell's output power, test its output characteristics, and determine the component's quality level. First, we will perform an insulation resistance test on one component by passing DC current through it. First, we'll conduct an insulation resistance test. For one minute, we will run DC current through the component. The panel will pass the test if it can withstand the current. It will fail otherwise. We check the voltage withstand and insulation strength of the component to ensure that it can withstand harsh natural conditions (such as lightning strikes) without being damaged.

The power test comes next. The staff will test the components' output current, voltage, power, and so on, and will create label information. They will then stick the labels on the backboard to differentiate them.

Finally, we perform a second EL test and a visual inspection to reduce detection error.

Module Testing

Step 10:Packing

After the three final quality inspections, the staff will begin packing the PV modules. In addition to packing them in cartons, we will wrap cardboard around the four edges of each module to prevent accidents during transportation. After we finish packing, we will wrap a film around the outside of the carton to better insulate air and moisture.

Every Maysun solar panel, from the cells to the final delivery, is subjected to standardised processes and stringent tests. Because we insist on product quality, we offer customers a 15-year product warranty and a 25-year performance guarantee, allowing them to enjoy green and clean energy.


Maysun Solar has created an animated video that explains how photovoltaic panels are made, click on the video to learn more!

How can solar panels be made more efficient and last longer?​

1. High conversion efficiency and cell quality.

2. High-quality raw materials, such as EVA with a high crosslinking degree, they encapsulate with a high bonding strength (neutral silicone resin adhesive), high transmittance high-strength toughened glass, and so on.

3.An appropriate encapsulation procedure.

4. The staff's strict work style.

5. Professional and reasonable installation.

As the solar cell is a high-tech product, some details in the production process, such as not wearing gloves, uniformly coated reagents and scribbling, etc., are important factors affecting the product's quality, so in addition to developing a reasonable production process, the staff's conscientiousness and rigour is very important.

Without gloves, installation left palm prints on the solar panels, which had to be cleaned later.

solar panels with palm prints

All of Maysun Solar's solar panels have high efficiency and longevity at an affordable price. The image below shows a solar panel installation from one of our German clients. To learn more about the product, click on the image.

Twisun 390W--410W Double Glass Full Black PV module PERC 210mm 120cells